The Conservative Judge

In this trial, The Conservative Judge argues in favor of historically traditional values in order to protect long-standing and socially essential institutions. While The Conservative Judge completely understands and is potentially sympathetic toward new discoveries, he or she recognizes the importance of stability and tradition in society.

Historical Example

Cardinal Robert Bellarmine is a good example of the character of The Conservative Judge during the trial of Galileo. Despite being seventy-four years old and in ill health at the time of the trial, he was a prominent defender of Catholic orthodoxy throughout the ordeal.

Bellarmine had a long history of defending papal power and his Scholastic inclinations made him naturally suspicious of Galileo's novel ideas about the universe. He was concerned about the potential scandal and particularly about the preservation of the intellectual status quo. Not one to jump to rash decisions, he sought guidance from Jesuit astronomers for their opinion on the matter. His conclusion was that Galileo's ideas ought to be obviously and intentionally presented as "hypothetical theories" rather than "absolute truth." As a result, Bellarmine eventually admonished Galileo to cease spreading and defending Copernican views.

Special Powers

As a member of the clergy, you have a right to participate in the Ecumenical Council concerning Galileo's treatise. During this Council, you may offer arguments or refute arguments presented by opponents. 

As a judge, you will call for a hearing to evaluate Galileo's culpability. You must obtain general consent from all the Conservative and Liberal Judges. During the hearing, these judges will preside. As a judge, it will be your responsibility to hear, accept, or reject arguments from the various participants of the hearing, but you may not introduce arguments for consideration. As a judge, you can accept any arguments suggested, but these can later be refuted. As a believer in unbiased law, you cannot reject sound arguments. 

How to Succeed

Throughout the simulation, The Conservative Judge will argue against Galileo's treatise on social and moral grounds. While the scientific observations may be true, faith in the scriptures is more important. 

The Conservative Judge wins points in the following ways: 

The Conservative Judge loses points in the following ways: 

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